Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that received FDA approval for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in 2010. The mechanism of action includes slowing gastric emptying, increasing glucose-dependent insulin secretion, decreasing inappropriate glucagon release, and instilling a feeling of satiety. Liraglutide is administered once daily by subcutaneous injection. Common adverse effects of liraglutide include nausea (28%), diarrhea (17%), vomiting (11%), and constipation (10%).
Anti-muscarinic drugs are an option in the treatment of overactive bladder which is defined as urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia, in the absence of a urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology.
Oral oxybutynin has been available by prescription for over 40 years, initially marketed as Ditropan® and Ditropan XL® although now generically availably, in addition to the transdermal patch Oxytrol and transdermal gel Gelnique. As an antagonist at muscarinic receptors, oxybutynin leads to relaxation of the smooth muscle of the bladder which leads to increased bladder capacity, decreased involuntary contractions and decreased urgency and frequency of both voluntary and incontinent episodes. The suggested dose is one patch applied for 4 consecutive days, after which the patch should be removed and a new one applied.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a medical illness that is characterized by depressed mood, hopelessness, and loss of interest.1 According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), approximately 6.7% of US adult population experienced MDD, with 30.4% of these cases (2.0% of U.S. adult population) classified as severe.